Why you should follow this advice

There is no such thing as “perfect security”, but following these guidelines will protect you against most ways that people get hacked. It presents a prescriptive list of actions you can take to immediately increase your security posture.

Guide last updated 04-05-2020

For a quick cheat-sheet, click here

Table of contents

Logging in


Weak passwords are a common way of breaking in to computers. Passwords under 10 characters can be broken in minutes, some in seconds. An extremely common way to get hacked is for a set of login/passwords to be leaked, which hackers then go and try on hundreds of other online services. You can see if your information has been found in a breach at Have I Been Pwned.

The key takeaway is don’t reuse the same passwords (or similar passwords) across sites, and use long passwords everywhere

To achieve this, install and use a password manager.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Create a ‘master password’. Try to use a phrase as a base to increase its length
    • Choose four or more random words (e.g. battery, horse, staple, correct)
      • Ensure they’re actually random, they can’t be a cogent sentence
      • Try flipping through a book and picking words at random
      • Avoid common words like conjunctives (and, or, etc)
    • Piece them together in to a single phrase with capital letters (BatteryHorseStapleCorrect)
    • Add some numbers and/or punctuation (BatteryHorseStaple?Correct!)
    • Don’t use any examples you see on the internet, including these ones.
  2. Migrate passwords for your key accounts over to the password manager
    • These include your email addresses, social media accounts, and bank accounts
    • Use the password manager’s built-in password generator; go for the longest password that the website will accept (generally, length matters more than “complexity”)
    • Log in to the accounts, select ‘change my password’, and replace your old password with a newly generated one (NOT the master password you created earlier! That is ONLY for accessing your password manager)
  3. Migrate other accounts as you log in to them naturally
    • As you use your other online accounts, you will naturally need to log in to them. If you log in to an account and find yourself using an old password, or a password that you can remember, migrate it to your password manager and make it long and complex!
    • You can, of course, migrate as many passwords as you can in one go, but it can often be less overwhelming to do it in small batches

You have two options; LastPass or 1Password. (I personally prefer 1Password and use its Families product)


PINs are very insecure since there are many fewer combinations of numbers to try than there are letters.

  • If you can, use a longer PIN. 6 numbers is better than 4 (100x better, to be exact)
  • Don’t use dates, they are the first thing people will try (especially anything starting with 19..)
  • Use a PIN phrase:
    • Choose a word
    • Type that word out using the letters on a number pad
    • This is easier to remember and much more secure

Multi-Factor Authentication

Using a username, password, and something else is much more secure than just a username and password.

  • Install Authy on your phone and go through the setup process
  • Set up all your online accounts with 2FA using this guide
    • If you find yourself short of time, set it up first for your email addresses, Facebook, and Twitter accounts at a bare minimum.
  • When you log in with your username and password, you will additionally have to enter a number from the Authy app on your phone in future



WhatsApp is the most secure messenger service in wide use. A few others are technically more secure but WhatsApp is so pervasive that you probably have it installed on your phone already, and so does the person you want to talk to.

  • Default to having conversations on WhatsApp
  • Don’t write anything down you can’t risk leaking
    • Leaks happen. Screenshots, stolen phones, aggrieved colleagues
  • On computers, use the WhatsApp Web interface
    • Always log out afterwards, or someone else can use your computer to see your messages

Phone calls

When making phone calls you have two options:

1 Use WhatsApp if you are trying to call someone on a mobile phone number, and they have WhatsApp installed,

  • Normal phone calls can be intercepted; calls through WhatsApp are encrypted
  • It will go over WiFi if you are connected, otherwise it will go over your 4G/data, using up part of your data limits. It generally does not use much data though

2 Call normally using your phone.

  • Use this when calling landline numbers or people who do not have WhatsApp.
    • Try to convince your contacts to also use WhatsApp!


Email is very insecure. Unfortunately it’s also very important. Never use it for anything that needs to be kept secret unless you have to.

Your email address is the control centre for most of your online life - all password reset processes go through it, so you need to ensure it is well protected.

  • Make sure the password you are using is long & generated via your password manager
  • Enable 2FA
  • Never give any apps permissions to read or write your email inbox


Attachments are one of the biggest risks you face. Even attachments coming from a trusted sender are a danger; if someone you know gets their email hacked, the attacker may send you a message that looks just like a typical message, but actually contains a malicious payload (for example, an email from your campaign manager with a Word doc that actually installs a virus).

  • Default to opening attachments on your phone instead of your computer
  • Where necessary to open it on a computer, make sure not to click any “Administrator” prompts
  • If the attachment doesn’t open as expected or something weird happens, shut down the computer and find your friendly local computer helper



Your phone will probably be the most secure device available to you - it’s also always with you, meaning it’s less likely to be compromised (or stolen) while you’re away from it.

If in doubt, do it on your phone.

Choosing a new phone

  • If you can afford it, get an iPhone, they’re generally more secure and much easier to keep secure
  • If you cannot afford an iPhone or strongly prefer Android phones, buy a phone from the Android One or Android Go range since they get regular updates directly from Google


You must make sure it’s still getting updates from your manufacturer. Software updates include security fixes; many attacks use exploits that target old bugs that have since been fixed.


  • If you have an iPhone SE, 6S, or newer you are currently still getting updates
  • The iPhone 6 and 6 Plus (and older models) are out of support. Stop using these phones and upgrade
  • Ensure you have the latest update. Do this by going to Settings > General > Software Update, tap Download and Install, then Install. Or follow this guide


  • It’s much more complicated to find out if an Android phone is getting regular updates, and can be affected by both your phone manufacturer and network. Contact your manufacturer
  • Ensure you have the latest update. Do this by going to Settings > System > Advanced > System Update, tap Check for Update. These instructions may vary from phone to phone


  • Go through your phone and delete any apps you’re not currently using. Every app is a vector for attack; less apps are more safe. If you think you might need it in future, you can always reinstall when the need arises
  • Limit apps’ permissions to the minimum possible. If in doubt, remove the permission from the app and see what breaks - you can always give it back!
    • On iPhone go to Settings > Privacy and go through each category in turn
    • On Android go to Settings > Privacy > Permission manager and go through each category in turn
  • Never sideload apps. This is where applications are installed by downloading a file ending .apk instead of installing it from the app store/play store. It is disabled by default on both Android and iPhones
  • Do not root or jailbeak your device. This disables many of the security protections on your device

Unlocking your phone

  • Ensure you use a strong, long passphrase or pin on your phone (even with fingerprint or FaceID)
    • Don’t share this with anyone, and if you do then reset it afterwards
  • Set your phone to hide notifications until unlocked. As almost all modern phones have a fingerprint sensor or FaceID, it is still extremely quick and easy to view your notifications when needed. To set it up:
    • On iPhone go to Settings -> Notifications -> Show Previews, and set to When Unlocked.
    • On Android go to Settings -> Sound & Notifications -> When Device Is Locked, and set to Hide Sensitive Notification Content
  • Face ID and fingerprint unlocking is safe, but remember the risks:
    • Face ID can be unlocked by another person pointing your phone at you before running off
    • Fingerprint unlock can be used by someone touching your phone to your finger while you’re asleep (e.g. on a flight)
    • You can temporarily disable this on most phones, forcing a PIN unlock:
      • On iPhones (8 and up) hold down the side button and either volume button for two seconds
      • On iPhones (7 and below) press the power button five times
      • On Android this needs Enabling first. Go to Settings > Display > Advanced > Lock screen display and enable Show lockdown option. Then after you lock your phone, press and hold the power button until the menu comes up and tap lockdown


Computers are less secure than fully up to date phones. Generally, avoid using a computer for confidential information where possible (though for many things this is not practical).


Updates are essential to ensuring your computer stays secure. As with phones, software updates include security fixes; many attacks use exploits that target old bugs that have since been fixed. An unpatched computer leaves you exposed to many kinds of attacks.


  • Chromebooks get at least five years of updates from the day the computer went on sale
  • You will get update notifications and it will auto-update
  • Updates are usually completed in minutes
  • When support runs out you will get a notification to tell you - stop using it and buy a new one


  • All computers must be running Windows 10 and Windows update should be enabled
  • Don’t ignore update notifications, save your work and follow the instructions


  • All Macs should be running macOS the newest version of macOS and updates should be enabled
  • Don’t ignore update notifications, save your work and follow the instructions


It’s important that your computers are encrypted - if you don’t do this, it is simple to bypass a login screen and pick files straight off your computer:

  • Chromebooks are encrypted by default
  • On Windows, follow this guide. You might have to upgrade to the Pro version of Windows 10. If so, do it
  • On a Mac, enable FileVault using this guide


  • On Chromebooks antivirus is built-in
  • On a Mac antivirus is built-in
  • On Windows 10 antivirus is now built-in, make sure it’s enabled using this guide
  • Delete any other antivirus products


  • Use Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox as your default browser on your laptop
  • Install uBlock Origin to the browser (on Chrome or Firefox)
    • This blocks adverts and other scripts on websites that can do bad things
  • Install and use the HTTPS Everywhere browser extension
    • This forces sites to be more secure where possible
  • Avoid using other extensions, as they have access to your browsing activity


  • Avoid using USB drives (flash drives) - use Google Drive instead
  • ALWAYS lock your computer when you step away from it, even if its only for a few seconds

Online Presence




  • Avoid Wi-Fi that you do not own (e.g. cafes or hotels)
    • Other Wi-Fi networks may track and steal your data
    • Other people on the same Wi-Fi network could track and steal your data
    • You can always use 4G!